The Multiparty System: Resources


Essential Principles 

The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT: Yale Law School, 2008. 
     Federalist essay No. 10 by James Madison.

Blondel, Jean. "Types of Party Systems," in The West European Party System, edited by Peter Mair. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1990).

"Political Parties," in Principles of Democracy. Bureau of International Information Programs.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, 2005. (Link.)

Farrell, David M. Comparing Electoral Systems. Macmillan: London, 1998.

International Party Organizations
     Centrist Democrat International (link)
     International Democrat Union (link)
     Liberal International (link)
     Socialist International (link)
     Transnational Radical Party (link)
     (See also “Political Resources on Net” for lists and links to political parties, internationals, et. al.)


Economist magazine: Topics Index: Israel. See, e.g.: 
     Books and Arts: “A History of Israel” by Ari Shavit, December 14, 2013.

The New York Times: World Topics: Israel. See, e.g.:
“A Conscientious Objector Poses Challenge to the Israeli Military,” July 20, 2013.
     “Israel and the Apartheid Slander,” by Judge Richard Goldstone, October 31, 2011.
     “A Plan For Peace That Still Might Be,” New York Times Magazine, February 7, 2011.

B’Tselem: Israel Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories (link).

Israel Democracy Institute (Home Page).

Jewish Virtual Library: (Home Page). See also section "The Arab Boycott"

U.S. Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Israel).

Winograd Commission examining the war in Lebanon (Final Report).


Economist magazine: Topics Index: Malaysia. See, e.g.: 
     “Long Arms: Malaysian Politics and the Law,” March 15, 2014
     “Malaysia’s Elections: A Tawdry Result,” May 6, 2013
     “Malaysia’s Elections: A Time of Gifts,” April 11, 2013
     "Video Nasties,” March 23, 2013

The New York Times: World Topics: Malaysia. See, e.g.:
     “No End of Scrutiny Over Millions Sent to Malaysian Leader’s Accounts,” February 5, 2016.
     “Malaysia’s Deep Political Rifts Exposed Amid Mystery of Missing Flight,” March 19, 2014.
     “Malaysian Opposition Leader Sentenced in Sodomy Case,” March 8, 2014.
     “Malaysia’s Governing Coalition Keeps Hold on Power,” May 5, 2013.

Anwar, Ibrahim, "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 3 (July 2006)

Carter Center: Country Profile: Malaysia, Human Rights Defenders Initiative

Human Rights Watch: World Report 2016: Malaysia
     “Smoke and Mirrors: Malaysia’s New Security Act.” Reprinted from Asia Pacific Bulletin, No. 167, June 14, 2012.

US Dept. of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Malaysia).


Economist magazine: Topics Index: Syria. See, e.g.:
     “Death of A Country” and “The Country Formerly Known as Syria,” February 13, 2013

The New York Times: World Topics: Syria and Crisis in Syria. See, e.g.: 
     “Death Toll in War Over 470,000, Group Finds,” February 11, 2016.
     “Syrians Desperate to Escape What UN Calls ‘Extermination’ by Government,” February 9, 2016.
     “Victory in Syrian Election Is Show of Assad’s Control,” June 4, 2014
     “Three Years of Strife and Cruelty Puts Syria in Free Fall,” March 17, 2014.
     “Among the Wounded in Syria’s War: Ancient History,” March 8, 2014.
     “The Syria the World Forgot,” June 8, 2013.     

Human Rights Watch: World Report 2016: Syria.
     See also: “Increased Use of Banned Weapon: Daily Cluster Munitions Attacks,” February 8, 2016.

New Yorker magazine
     Anderson, Jon Lee, “Letter from Syria: The Implosion,” February 27, 2012.

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (Home Page).

United Nations
     Report of the Independent Commission Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1595 (the Hariri Assassination): 2005.
     Report of the UN Mission on the Use of Chemical Weapons by the Syrian Arab Republic: September 16, 2013.
     Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic: September 25, 2013.
     UN Human Rights Council’s Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic (Home Page).

U.S. Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Syria).