Freedom of Religion: Resources


Essential Principles

Basic Readings in U.S. Democracy. InfoUSA, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC. (Home Page)
     "Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom," with Backgrounder (link).

Religious Freedom Web Page. “Court Decisions.” Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, 2001.
     See also the main site of the Religious Freedom Page at

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "The Four Freedoms." Speech before U.S. Congress, January 6, 1941.
     See also American Rhetoric home page.

Marshall, Paul and Shea, Nina. Silenced: How Apostasy and Blasphemy Codes Are Choking Freedom Worldwide (Oxford University Press: 2011).

Pew Research Center. The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics, and Society. April 2013.

Vermeulen, Ben. "The Historical Development of Religious Freedom." Lecture. April 1998.

UN General Assembly. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted December 16, 1966.

U.S. State Department
     Office of International Religious Freedom, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
     International Religious Freedom Report. See links for Annual Reports.

United States

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See "Religious Freedom in the United States of America," in ICRF country reports listed by continent (link).

Jefferson, Thomas. “Letter to the Danbury Baptists (1802).” Library of Congress. Etext.

Kraft, Emilie. "Ten Commandments Monument Controversy." Encyclopedia of Alabama, May 12, 2008.

Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." July 23, 2010.

National Archives (link).
     Charters of Freedom (links to U.S. Constitution for Article VI and First Amendment). See also Teachers’ Resources.

Pew Research Center.
     America’s Changing Religious Landscape. May 2015.
     US Becoming Less Religious. November 2015.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. "How Religion in the United States Avails Itself of Democratic Tendencies."   Chapter 5. Democracy in America, volume II, 1835.

The New York Times.
     “Reading Hobby Lobby in Context,” Oped by Linda Greenhouse, July 9, 2014.

U.S. Supreme Court Decisions (see FindLaw: U.S. Supreme Court for general reference)
     Abington v. Schempp, 347 U.S. 203 (1963). Case on school prayer.
     Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971). Case on state funding for nonpublic schools.
     Moore v. Glassroth, 335 F.3d 1282 (11th cir. 2003). Case involving Ten Commandments monument in Alabama state courthouse.


Economist magazine. Topics Index: Nigeria. See, e.g.:
     "Nigeria: Africa’s New Number One,” April 10, 2014.

The New York Times. Times Topics: Nigeria. See, e.g.:
     "Boko Harem Ranked Ahead of ISIS as Deadliest Terror Group for 2014.” November 21, 2015.
     “Nigerian President Escalates Campaign to Stem Corruption.” October 19, 2015.
     “In Nigeria, An Election To Believe In.” Op-Ed. April 9, 2015.
     “Tales of Escapees in Nigeria Add to Worries About Other Kidnapped Girls,” May 14, 2014.
Rights Group Says Data Suggests Mass Shootings in Nigeria,” March 31, 2014.

     "What's So Scary About Smart Girls" by Nicholas Kristof. May 11, 2014

Fund for Peace. Failed States Index: Nigeria: Country Data and Trends.

Human Rights Watch: 2016 World Report: Nigeria. See also Human Rights in Nigeria country page.

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See, "Religious Freedom in Nigeria," inICRF country reports listed by continent.

Sahara Reporters. Independent reporting on Nigeria and Africa (link).

Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP).

U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report (link). Select year and drop down menu for countries and regions to link to Nigeria.


Economist magazine. Topics Index: Vietnam.
     “Reptilian Maneuvers: A Colourful Prime Minister Goes as the Gray Men Stay.” January 26, 2016.
     “Religion in Vietnam: Higher Powers.” September 26, 2015.

The New York Times. World Topics: Vietnam
     "Vietnam’s Communist Party Gives Old-Guard Leader a New 5-Year Term.”
January 27, 2016.
“Kerry Tells Vietnam That US Ties Will Deepen if Human Rights Are Respected.” August 7, 2015.
In Hard Times, Open Dissent and Repression Rise in Vietnam,” April 23, 2013.

Electronic Frontier Foundation. “Threats to Internet Freedom on the Rise in Vietnam.” Eva Galperin. September 12, 2012.

Human Rights Watch: 2016 World Report: Vietnam. See also Human Rights in Vietnam country page.

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See "Religious Freedom in Vietnam" incountry reports listed by continent.

UN Council on Human Rights. Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief. 
     Home Page and Country Visit Reports (see links to 2014 Country Visit to Vietnam).

U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report (link). Select year and drop down menu for countries and regions to link to Vietnam.