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Freedom of Religion: Resources

Essential Principles

Bureau of International Information Programs. "Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom." In Basic Readings in U.S. Democracy. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, n.d.

Hudson Institute's Center for Religious Freedom.

Office of International Religious Freedom, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. State Department.

Religious Freedom Page. "Court Decisions." Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, 2001. See the main site of the Religious Freedom Page at

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "The Four Freedoms." Speech before U.S. Congress, January 6, 1941. See also American Rhetoric home page at

UN General Assembly. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted December 16, 1966. Entered into force March 23, 1976.

Vermeulen, Ben. "The Historical Development of Religious Freedom." Lecture, conference of the International Coalition for Religious Freedom. Washington, DC, April 17–19, 1998.

United States

Abington v. Schempp, 347 U.S. 203 (1963). Case on school prayer.

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See "Religious Freedom in the United States of America," in Religious Freedom World Report, 2004.

Kraft, Emilie. "Ten Commandments Monument Controversy." Encyclopedia of Alabama, May 12, 2008.

Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971). Case on state funding for nonpublic schools.

Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic."

Moore v. Glassroth, 335 F.3d 1282 (11th cir. 2003). Case involving the chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court and a monument in the Alabama judicial building.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. "How Religion in the United States Avails Itself of Democratic Tendencies." Chapter 5 in Democracy in America, volume II, 1835.

U.S. Constitution, Article VI.

U.S. Constitution, First Amendment.

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 (2002). Case on legality of funding for students' school choice regardless of religious affiliation.


Human Rights Watch. Revenge in the Name of Religion: The Cycle of Violence in Plateau and Kano States. New York: Human Rights Watch, May 2005.

Ibrahim, Hauwa, and Princeton N. Lyman. Reflections on the New Shari'a Law in Nigeria. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, June 2004.

Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Nigeria: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 1991.

Peters, Ruud, and Maarten Barends. The Reintroduction of Islamic Criminal Law in Northern Nigeria: A Study Conducted on Behalf of the European Commission. Lagos: September 2001.


Amor, Abdelfattah, Special Rapporteur. Civil and Political Rights, Including the Question of Religious Intolerance: Visit to Viet Nam. Geneva: UN Commission on Human Rights, December 29, 1998.

Cima, Ronald J., ed. Vietnam: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 1987.

Federal Research Division. Country Profile: Vietnam. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, December 2005.

Human Rights Watch. Vietnam: The Silencing of Dissent. New York: Human Rights Watch, May 2000.