Rule of Law: Resources


Essential Principles

The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy. Yale Law School: New Haven, 2008.
     Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789.
     Magna Carta, 1215.
     English Bill of Rights, 1689.
     U.S. Declaration of Independence, 1776.
     Constitution of the United States and Bill of Rights, 1787 and 1791.
     Habeas Corpus Act, 1679 (available at LONANG Institute).

Human Rights Web. "A Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights." 1997. This site Contains descriptions of and links to relevant documents, such as:
     Charter of the United Nations 
     Universal Declaration of Human Rights
     Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
     Convention Against Torture

Chornohorska, Anastasiia. “Deportations, Genocide, and Russia’s War Against the Crimean Tatars.” Euromaidan Press. May 18, 2016. A brief history of the Crimean Tatar nation and its current struggles.

Kleinfeld Belton, Rachel. “Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Carnegie Papers: January 21, 2005.

United Nations (see also above: Human Rights Web).
     Dag Hamerskjold Library Research Guides: International Law (link)For descriptions of International Courts of Law.
     United Nations Human Rights Council: International Human Rights Law (link).

Democracy Papers. Bureau of International Information Programs.
     "The Role of an Independent Judiciary." Philippa Strum. U.S. Department of State: 2001.

Recommended Films
     A Struggle for Home. A Documentary on the History of the Crimean Tatars. (2015).
     The Nuremburg Trials. Directed by Stanley Kramer (1961).
     To Kill a Mockingbird. Directed by Robert Mulligan (1962).
     Twelve Angry Men. Directed by Sidney Lumet (1957).
     Fury. Directed by Fritz Lang (1930).


Economist magazine. Topics Index: Germany. See, e.g.:
     “Is the Welcome Culture Legal? Angela Merkel Faces a Court Test.” February 13, 2016.
     “Erich Priebke: Unrepentant Organizer of the Ardeatine Caves Massacre.” October 26, 2013.
     Country Survey: Germany: “Europe’s Reluctant Hegemon.” June 15, 2013.
     “Colours of the Rainbow: A Guide to Germany’s Federal Electons.” June 15, 2013

The New York Times: World: Times Topics: Germany. See, e.g.:
     Germany’s Pursuit of Death Camp Guards,” May 9, 2014.
     Germany Announces Deal on Art Looted by Nazis.April 7, 2014.
     “Shedding Light on a Vast Toll of Jews Killed Away from Death Camps.” January 28, 2014.
     A Guillotine in Storage Bears Signs of a Role in Silencing Nazis’ Critics.January 14, 2014.
     “How the Revival of Postwar Germany Began,” by Bruce Bartlett. June 18, 2013.
     “Hitler Exhibit Explores a Wider Circle of Guilt,” by Michael Slackman. October 16, 2010.
     “How Democracy Produced a Monster,” by Ian Kershow. Sunday Opinion. Feb. 3, 2008.

Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Constitution of the German Democratic Republic.

Craig, Gordon. The Germans (Meridan: New York, 1982.Shirer, William. The Nightmare Years.

Stern, Fritz. Five Germanys I Have Known (Farrar, Straus & Giroux: New York, 2006.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
     Holocaust Encyclopedia: The White Rose. See also related resources listed on the page.

U.S. Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Germany).

Recommended Films
     "Kinderblock 66: A Return to Buchenwald." Directed by Ron Cohen (2013).
     "The Nightmare Years”: A TV Miniseries (Consolidated Films).
     "Schindler’s List." Directed by Steven Spielberg (1993).
     "Torn Curtain." Directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1966).
     "The Lives of Others." Directed by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (2007).


Economist magazine. Topics Index: Singapore. 

The New York Times. World: Times Topics: Singapore. See, e.g.:
     “Singapore Clamps Down on News Web Sites,” June 9, 2013.

PBS: "Commanding Heights: Singapore."

Singapore Democratic Party. "Chee Found Guilty for 'Attempting to Leave Singapore."

U.S. Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Singapore).

Saudi Arabia

Economist magazine. Topics Index: Saudi Arabia. See, e.g.:
     “The Saudi Succession: Next after next….” April 5, 2014.
     Economist Country Survey: Saudi Arabia: A Long Walk. January 6, 2006.

The New York Times. World: Times Topics: Saudi Arabia.
     “Saudi Arabia’s Duplicitous Legalism,” Oped Article, by Eman Al-Nafjan. June 19, 2014.
     “Online Chats Between Sexes Denounced in Saudi Arabia.”  May 29, 2014.

Ansary, Abdullah F. A Brief Overview of the Saudi Arabian Legal System. GlobaLex: NYU Law School.

Center for Democracy and Human Rights in Saudi Arabia (CDHR). See suggested links.

Center for Religious Freedom/Freedom House
     “Saudi Arabia’s Curriculum of Intolerance,” 2006. Summary and Full Report.

Foreign Policy
     "The Kingdom's Clock." Rachel Bronson and Isobel Coleman. September–October 2006.
     “Teaching Intolerance.” Eman Al Nafjan, May-June 2012.        

House, Karen Elliot. On Saudi Arabia: Its People, Past, Religion, Fault Lines—and Future. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 2012.

Murphy, Caryle. “A Kingdom’s Future.” Wilson Center: 2012. 

New York Review of Books. “Will Saudi Arabia Ever Change?”. Hugh Eakin. January 10, 2013.

Reporters Without Borders:  2016 (see Saudi Arabia in drop down menu and previous reports).

US Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (go to current year Country Report drop down menu for Saudi Arabia).